Soil erosion basically refers to the removal of the topsoil due to water or wind. This process occurs naturally and has been going on for more than 450 million years. The process of soil erosion occurs at the same rate at which the soil is formed. So, we never realize this. However, it is the accelerated soil erosion that is a major cause of concern.
Accelerated soil erosion is nothing but the removal of soil due to wind or water faster than the formation of soil. This process has been taking place due to human activities, like overgrazing, using unsuitable agricultural practices, cutting down trees rampantly and constructing buildings. Due to all these reasons, soil erosion has become a severe problem to the environment. Not only does soil erosion devastate the land from where the soil gets eroded, it also causes serious problems where the deposition of the eroded soil takes place.
Basically soil erosion causes the soil to degrade. Once soil erosion takes place, the fertile topsoil is lost. As a result the soil becomes unproductive and it cannot be used for growing crops. Further, soil erosion causes formation of gullies and when it rains, the gullies become a source for the rainwater to flow, carrying away more soil and causing damage at the place where the soil gets deposited. That is why it has become a commonplace to hear of landslides and mudslides during heavy rainfall. Also, due to soil erosion, the rainwater, which otherwise would have been absorbed by the ground and replenished the groundwater, tends to flow and cause floods in some places. This is dual problem as groundwater is depleting dramatically because of overuse and also urban and rural areas are becoming more floods prone.
This should give you sufficient information to understand What Is Soil Erosion ?.
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