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Hemorrhoids also known as piles are inflamed blood vessels in the anus or the rectum that occur when pressure in blood vessels or veins become greater than the normal levels. Hemorrhoids can be seen in any age group but are specifically seen in adults. They can be very agonizing and may also bleed. Factors like diarrhea, chronic constipation, pregnancy and obesity contribute in developing hemorrhoids. As far as treatment is concerned, there are many options available from home remedies to surgery.
Minor hemorrhoids usually react well to home remedies. Often ointments, creams and suppositories are used to help in reducing any pain or swelling. Sitting and relaxing in a bath tub filled with warm water for at least 10 minutes, calms and heals the enlarged tissues. Consuming high fiber diet of vegetables and fruits is very beneficial. Also drinking a lot of fluids and water a minimum of about 6 to 8 glasses per day prevents constipation by softening the stool. The Harvard Health Publications recommend twenty to thirty minutes of aerobics every day as exercising ensures consistent bowel movements.
If the hemorrhoid is large and none of the tradition methods or treatments work, rubber band ligation is implemented. In this process each hemorrhoid is encircled by one rubber band at its base which results in causing the hemorrhoid to dry and finally slough off. In severe cases, local anesthesia is used.
Sclerotherapy is a treatment done on internal hemorrhoids when bleeding. In this process, sclerosants, which are saline salts or chemicals, damage the hemorrhoid, inflaming it further leaving a scar that eventually shrinks off.
A treatment widely used for painful but small hemorrhoids is the infrared photocoagulation. Here, the hemorrhoid is exposed to an infrared light that heats up the tissue to harden and waste away. No anesthesia is required as this method is pain-free with hardly any complications. However, infrared photocoagulation is only a temporary solution as the hemorrhoids are very likely to reoccur again.
Staples is a treatment performed under the effect of general anesthesia on prolapsed or bleeding hemorrhoids. These are stapled back into their original positions. This is a one-time procedure with a speedy recovery rate.
The surgical treatment of hemorrhoids is termed as hemorrhoidectomy, and is used generally if treatments that are less invasive fail. The surgery can be performed under either general or local anesthesia and requires removing the affected tissues. Complications like difficulty in urinating or constipation are after effects of the surgery.
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