White blood cells are made up of a number of cells and one of them is neutrophils. In fact, the neutrophils comprise nearly fifty to seventy percent of the WBCs. These cells are phagocytic in nature and are responsible for ingesting other cells, and upon ingestion, neutrophils die. The first cells to reach an infection site in the body are the neutrophils. They reach the infection site via a process called chemotaxis.
However, the lifespan of these neutrophils is very short. They have a half life of around 4 to 10 hours when the cells are not called upon to fight an infection and when they are called, they immediately die after ingesting the pathogen. The good news is that there is never shortage of these cells in the body as the body requires them for its defense. These cells constitute the prime component of pus and that is why pus usually appears whitish in color. Usually, neutrophils are circulating in the blood and after they receive a signal from the body, they reach the infection site within an hour.
Once they reach an infection site, the neutrophils will let loose a net of fibers known as neutrophil extracellular trap. This net helps to ensnare and subsequently kill the pathogens and this takes place outside the cell. Then, the neutrophils will ingest the pathogens and kill them through proteins known as primary, secondary and tertiary granules. In addition, these cells also secrete superoxide, which is then converted into hypocholrous acid, and it is believed that this acid also aids in killing the pathogens.
So, if you blood test shows high neutrophils levels, you must be wondering what is high neutrophils from blood test result. Unfortunately, there are several causes for high neutrophils from blood test result. Basically when the level of neutrophils is over 8,000, it is said to be very high. This can occur when stress is exerted on the body due to exercise, nervousness as well as seizures. Also, if a person suddenly gets a bacterial infection, the neutrophil level can be high. In case some tissue sustains damage and/or swelling, like in heart attack or burn injuries, then also neutrophil levels can be high.
Suppose a person suddenly develops kidney failure, then it is common to see high neutrophils from blood test result. Also, due to ketoacidosis, the body can have high levels of neutrophils. This is a condition wherein the body produces high amounts of acids and ketones when the body is unable to metabolize fats.
In pregnant women, high neutrophils from blood test are observed in case of eclampsia. Although it is a rare condition to have, eclampsia is seen in women who suffer from pre-eclampsia. This condition develops towards the latter half of the pregnancy where the woman suddenly suffers from high blood pressure, edema and pass out large amounts of proteins in her urine.
When cancer is spreading throughout the body, a person can also have high levels of neutrophils. The same is also true for hemolytic anemia. In this condition, the RBCs get destroyed before they should be. It has also been seen that high neutrophils from blood test result are observed in polycythemia vera. This is a condition wherein the RBCs and other cells increase in number. Even myeloid metaplasia leads to high neutrophils. This condition occurs when the bone marrow tends to grow in other parts of the body.Finally, medication can result in high neutrophils too. Corticosteroids are the main culprits for this along with lithium carbonate, a drug used to treat mania.
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