When a person goes to a doctor for a urinary problem or for a regular health checkup, the doctor will require the person to have a urine test done. These urine tests allow a doctor to find out about several health conditions that a person could be suffering from, like problems with the liver or kidneys, infection, CKD, cirrhosis, kidney stones, hepatitis, chronic kidney disease and diabetes.
If you get the result of your urine test, you may not be able to make head or tails from the report. Hence, knowing how to read urine tests can be extremely beneficial even for a lay person.
When you get your urine test report, you will find that the results of the different components of the urines are compared to the normal ranges. Looking at the variation, whether your levels are higher or lower, a doctor can make a diagnosis as to what is ailing you.
The report will have details like the odor of the urine. This is to determine whether there are ketones present in the urine. If the odor is mentioned fruit-like, then there are ketones present in the urine. In addition, the report will also mention the color of the urine. A urine that is dark in color show that there is dehydration, while a urine sample that is light in color shows that there is over-hydration of the body.
In addition, the report will mention the pH of the urine sample, the specific gravity, the levels of the nitrates, the levels of the protein, the levels of the glucose, and the presence of blood and hemoglobin in the urine sample. The normal pH of the urine should be between 4.8 and 7.5, while the specific gravity of the urine should be between 1.0 and 1.03. Usually, in a normal test for urine, there should be zero ketones, glucose and proteins. If there is, then it is an abnormality. The same is also true for the presence of blood.
If the pH of the urine sample is higher than the normal range, then the person is suffering from a fever, an infection of the urinary tract or gout. In case the urine test result shows higher than normal presence of urobilinogen, it means that the person is suffering from a problem associated with liver. If the level of the bilirubin in the urine is more than 3 umol/liter, then the person could be suffering from anemia, a problem with the liver or possibly hepatitis. In case the levels of the leukocytes are higher than normal, then it means that the person is suffering from an infection of the kidney.
These are some of the basic things that you should known when trying to find out how to read urine tests.
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