Usually, when a woman gets pregnant, she expects the pregnancy to go without any complications. However, not all women are so lucky. Some of them end up with complications, which can be a cause for concern. The most common pregnancy complications are briefly described below.
Ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg adheres somewhere else other than the uterus. One of the most common places for attachment is the fallopian tubes, but the egg can also attach to the ovaries, stomach region or the cervix. Usually, ectopic pregnancy can occur in women suffering from STDs, pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or those who have had treatment for infertility. As the fertilized egg grows in a confined space, it can result in the rupturing of the organ, as is commonly seen with the fallopian tube. It results in profuse bleeding and can be fatal if timely treatment is not given to the woman.
Rh negative disease occurs when the Rh factor of the pregnant woman and the fetus is different. As a result the woman's body begins producing antibodies to fight the Rh factor of the fetus. This can be treated with the help of medication to protect the growing fetus and the mother.
Some women can have Group B Strep infection, which can be passed on to the baby at the time of delivery. Hence, doctors often check pregnant mothers for Group B Strep during pregnancy, and if found, treatment is started immediately. At times, the treatment may be given after childbirth to the mother and the baby.
One of the most common pregnancy complications is premature birth or preterm birth. This occurs when the full thirty-seven weeks of pregnancy are not completed and the baby is born. Under such circumstances, the baby's lungs may not be fully developed to breathe on its own and also it could have low birth weight. This is a risk to the baby. Often doctors try to avert preterm births with the help of medications and bed rest to try and ensure that the baby stays in the womb for as long as possible.
Many pregnant women get diagnosed with diabetes during their pregnancy. This diabetes is known as gestational diabetes and occurs when the body does not produce sufficient amounts of insulin. Usually, gestational diabetes occurs in the second trimester and has to be controlled through proper diet or taking of insulin injections.
When women do not maintain healthy and nutritious diet, continue smoking and drinking alcohol or take illicit drugs, it can result in low birth weight of the baby. The weight of the baby can also be low when the woman does not get adequate prenatal care or is anemic. Such babies are susceptible to several health problems, such as respiratory infection, heart infection, blindness and cerebral palsy.
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American Pregnancy Association: Most Common Pregnancy Complications