Present on the surface of the cells are sugar molecules which designate them as being part of the body, thus, stopping them from being invaded and terminated. Apparently, the immune system effectively identifies, devours and annihilates all of the organisms that are present in any given infection. The reason for this is that the immune system is planned in a way that it attacks all alien bodies that passes through the blood stream.
On the other hand, the immune system does not always accomplish its task. Time and again the reason for this breakdown is that the raiding organism has evolved a tactic for skirting or repressing the host’s resistant response to that organism. In actual fact, there are countless different approaches that have evolved in different organisms. Some of these approaches include the following.
Tactic aimed against acquired immunity:
- Impersonation of molecule: There are several bacteria that imitate parts of the human body. In doing this, the body is far less likely to allow the existence of immune antibodies that act against the body itself.
- Repression of antibodies. This tact requires the targeting of those cells of the immune system that particularly respond against invading organisms. By immobilizing those cells, the organism stops the body from mounting an immune response against it.
- Concealing inside cells. The bacteria that use this tactic are Brucella, Listeria, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Tactics aimed against phagocytes:
- Restrain Chemotaxis. There are a number of bacteria, such as Staphylococcus Aureus, fabricate toxins which hinder the progress of phagocytes.
- By impeding Phagocytosis. The phagocytes swallow bacteria, but to do that, the phagocytes is required to first grasp onto the bacteria, and then overwhelm them. Some bacteria elude phagocytosis by not giving the phagocytes anything to hold onto.
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