A hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures or leaks. Thus, the bleeding that occurs due to this stroke can be either in the brain tissue or in the area around the brain. When the bleeding occurs inside the brain tissue, it known as intra-axial hemorrhage and when the bleeding is outside the brain but confined within the cranium, it is known as extra-axial hemorrhage.
Usually when a person suffers from a hemorrhagic stroke, the brain tissue gets injured. This injury is caused by the bleeding, which tends to expand as it continues. The bleeding can distort the surrounding brain tissue leading to injury. In addition, the pressure exerted by the accumulating blood can also lead to a decrease or loss in blood supply to the affected part of the brain. This, in turn, can lead to a brain infarction. Also, it has been noticed that the bleeding in the brain tends to have to toxic effect on the brain tissue and the blood vessels.
When a person suffers from hemorrhage during a hemorrhagic stroke, he may need to undergo a neurosurgery to figure out where the bleeding has occurred and what steps can be taken to stop the bleeding and its cause. People who suffer from hemorrhagic stroke are never given anticoagulants and antithrombotics as it can make the bleeding worse.
It must be pointed out that not all people suffering from hemorrhagic strokes have to undergo neurosurgery. For most people, keeping the blood pressure, blood sugar and oxygen at optimum levels helps to a great extent. Of course, they also have to be monitored very carefully.
The amount of bleeding determines the severity of the hemorrhagic stroke. It has been seen that majority of people die with a hemorrhagic stroke because of the pressure exerted by the hemorrhage on the brain. However, those who survive a hemorrhagic stroke invariably tend to recover better than people who have suffered a stroke caused by a clot. This is because when there is a clot in the blood vessel, the blood supply is blocked causing the brain cells to die. Therefore, the person will not regain the functions controlled by that part of the brain as it cannot regenerate itself. On the other hand, when there is bleeding, there is pressure exerted on the brain and once the pressure subsides, it is quite possible for the brain to get back some of its earlier functions.
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