The packaging for our genetic material is known as chromosomes or DNA. How to grow, develop and function is dictated by a special code which is carried by our DNA. These are organized into instructions called genes.
Most cells in the human body carry 46 chromosomes. There are billions of cells that are the building blocks for the many organ systems and tissues in our body. The 46 chromosomes in each cell come in 23 matching pairs. One chromosome in each pair is inherited from each of our parents. These 46 chromosomes can be organized by size and patterns of the dark and light bands into 23 pairs.
Genetics is the study of genes, inheritance, heredity and the variation of organisms. Genetics has been applied by early mankind in selective breeding of plants and animals though they were unaware of the dynamics.
Human chromosomes are linked to genetics because of the genes they contain. It is the genes that account for various traits in a human being. Such traits are the color of eyes and hair, physique, shape of ears and mouth and a host of other physical features. Since chromosomes and consequently genes are inherited from both parents, these traits come from both though not in equal measure. Gender, for example, is purely a trait from the male chromosomes. Some genes are recessive and others dominant. Genetics has evolved certain laws that by and large govern inheritance.
Genes are also responsible for many -- about 4,000 -- hereditary diseases which may be passed down due to genetic defects.
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