Gregor Mendel is considered to be the father of genetics. He worked out a model of inheritance in human beings after a careful study. His conclusions were that inheritance depended on discrete units known as genes and followed certain well-defined laws. Some of those interesting aspects of human genetics are detailed below:
Inheritance traits are either autosomal (not a sex chromosome) or X and Y linked.
In an autosomal recessive inheritance the disorder or trait is passed down through families. For a recessive trait to manifest itself, two copies are required which means it can remain latent for generations. Hence every human can be a carrier of a recessive gene without being aware of it.
On the other hand, an autosomal dominant inheritance requires only a single copy to manifest itself in a human being. If one parent has a dominant trait there is every possibility of it showing up in his or her children.
X and Y-linked inheritance are traits inherited from sex chromosomes. X-linked genes could be recessive and their disorders, inherited from the maternal side, are common amongst males.
Human beings possess mitochondrial DNA which is inherited from the mother, so DNA can track the maternal lines of a human.
Genes are responsible for human behavior and personality characteristics as well as such details as bodily physique and the predisposition to certain diseases. Such individuality as facial features, the color of the iris, facial dimples, shape of the nose, mouth and earlobes are all the consequence of inherited genes. Genetic engineering now enables the manipulation of genetic constitution so as to advance positive traits while suppressing the negatives.
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