It is known that nearly 95 percent of the thyroid nodules are benign and it is only 5 percent that are malignant. Examination by a physician, laboratory tests, ultrasound and thyroid scans can confirm the presence of the thyroid nodule but are unable to differentiate between the malignant and the benign.
The only test that can differentiate is a biopsy. During the biopsy procedure a sample of the tissue is taken for microscopic examination where the presence of cancer cells is noted.
Thyroid tissue is accessible to the needle. Hence, a needle is used to remove cells for microscopic examination. This is called fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. More number of separate needle aspirations is done at the time of the biopsy. This is because more samples improve the accuracy of the biopsy. The needle is inserted in a few different locations within the nodule.
There are limitations to the success of the biopsy procedure. Even experienced pathologists find it difficult to determine whether the thyroid cells are benign or malignant. There are occasions when the result of a biopsy procedure was inconclusive and the patients had to undergo repeat biopsy.
The so-called bloody fluid is actually a green brown fluid and it is due to the degeneration of the tissue.
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