The fundamental defect in all patients with high blood sugar or diabetes is the diminished ability of insulin to encourage cells of the body to absorb glucose (sugar) molecules from the blood. Whether this reduced insulin activity is due to an insufficient amount of insulin produced, as in Type 1 diabetes, or from the inability of cells to react to the normal amount of insulin, the outcome is the same.
It results in blood glucose levels that are too high. High glucose in the blood is medically known as hyperglycemia.
People with type 1 diabetes do not produce enough insulin to transfer glucose out of the bloodstream into the cells. Those with type 2 are predisposed to a condition known as insulin resistance. This is a condition when the body is unable to detect or properly utilize insulin.
A common symptom of diabetes is fatigue. Fatigue is the result of the lack of energy because the cells are lacking in glucose, the source of energy. Fatigue is also caused because of several other complications arising from diabetes. Some of them are:
- Hypoglycemia, or low blood glucose, where the body is starved of glucose because of lack of supply.
- Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, where the body is starved of glucose though the supply is adequate, but it is unable to absorb the glucose into the cells.
- Obesity, which reduces physical functioning.
- Dehydration, a common symptom of diabetes, where the lack of fluid impairs the bodily functions.
- High blood pressure, commonly associated with high blood sugar.
- Diabetic neuropathy, where the nerves are damaged resulting in low blood pressure.
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