Bone grafting is a medical procedure wherein a part of the missing bone is replaced by another bone or material known as bone graft. Through this surgical procedure, the graft not only replaces the missing portion of the bone, but also helps the regrowth of the bone. Over a period of few months, the existing bone and the graft fuse.
Bone grafts are general used when a bone is missing which can happen due to trauma, accident, tumor removal or it maybe congenital in nature. The graft can be taken from the person's own body and is known as autograft. Allograft refers to taking a bone from a donor, usually deceased, and is procured from a bone bank. Synthetic material can also be used made from calcium phosphates or calcium sulphate. And finally, bone grafts can be xenograft in nature wherein the graft is procured from another species like bovine bones.
Some people experience allergic reactions to bone grafts. This is usually seen when allograft, synthetic material or xenograft is used. This primarily occurs because of the body's immune reaction. The body perceives this as a foreign object and starts attacking it, leading to allergic reactions. This could mean further surgical procedures for the patient where the graft would have to be removed and the entire area cleaned so that no remnants of the grafted material remain.
Therefore, before a bone grafting procedure, it is best to discuss all the details with your doctor about the material being used and the possible side effects, including allergic reactions. Remember, your doctor will choose the material for bone grafting depending on your requirements, and will not know whether your body will trigger allergic reactions to the bone graft. However, the percentage of people experiencing allergic reactions to bone grafts is low.
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