Fertilizer is a combination of compounds that is added to soil to improve plants' growth and yield. Fertilizer technology developed with the growing needs of chemicals for plants. Modern synthetic fertilizers are composed mainly of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium compounds along with small quantities of secondary nutrients.
These days thanks to the use of synthetic fertilizers, the quality and quantity of food yield has improved significantly.
Just like all other living organisms, even plants are made of numerous cells. Many metabolic chemical reactions go in these cells and these reactions are responsible not only for growth but also for reproduction. Plants depend on nutrients for growth development and these nutrients are supplied to them through the soil.
As plants feed on the nutrients from the soil, the soil gets depleted and it is the job of the fertilizers to replace these nutrients. That is why fertilizers are added to soil. In addition to improving the quality of the soil, fertilizers are also responsible for creating a better growing environment. Typically, fertilizers are made of compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
The primary components in fertilizers are the nutrients. Plants use nitrogen to synthesize proteins, nucleic acids, and hormones. If there is a nitrogen deficiency, growth of the plants decreases and the leaves turn yellow. Plants also need phosphorus as without sufficient phosphorus, plant growth is reduced. Potassium is another major nutrient that plants absorb from the soil and if plants turn yellow, have areas of dead tissue, and have weak stems and roots, it means that the plant is not getting enough of potassium.
In addition, fertilizers also contain calcium, magnesium, and sulfur but these are in small quantities as these components are already present in the soil.
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